"If you don't deploy LTE, eventually your network will cost a lot more to run as your traffic grows,"he says.
However, CSL is also picking and choosing where to deploy LTE - which is to say, in the hot-spot areas where traffic congestion is highest, with a fallback option of Dual Cell HSPA+ (see "CSL's 4G network is ready, awaiting devices" for details).
In other words, the secret to deploying LTE cost-effectively may be to forsake the old macro model and create selective islands of LTE.
That's how Telenor is doing it, says Bjorn Amundsen. "We are actually making a business case for every single base station we are building in the cities. It's the only way we can do it."
Amundsen offers an example of how it works: "If you're a customer and you come to me and say you need indoor coverage, and your business depends on it, I would say if you sign an agreement with Telenor for 12 months or two years, or whatever, we can build that indoor station. And if you're the owner of the building I will ask for you to let me stay free of charge. If you can do that, I can build it and we can start tomorrow. If you're not the owner, I must balance it and look at the income and the cost, and if I can make money I'll do it, but if I'll lose money, I won't."